Shawn K. Clement & Sean Murray
Table of reference:
Buffy season 1
Buffy season 2
Buffy season 3
Buffy season 4
Buffy season 5
Buffy season 6
Buffy season 7
Angel season 1
Angel season 2
Angel season 3
Angel season 4
Angel season 5
Buffy [the animated series]
Many thanks to Justin Boggan, who has worked hard to seek out uncredited and additional composers, and to Bleu Jean Management for DRS details. Other uncredited composers are only added here were confirmed by sources other than imdb.com.
Dear reader: the new information added below was mostly gleaned by Justin and confirmed by Blunt through two rights organisation websites: http://www.ascap.com and http://www.bmi.com. Although these sites are deemed more reliable than IMDb.com since they are used directly by the industry itself, neither site can claim to be beyond error (the BMI site ensures you understand this), and certainly neither site gives a particularly clear indication of the extent of the listed composers' involvement.
Composer for Buffy's first season, Murphy set up a continuation of the electronic "spook" style which had firmly dated the original Buffy filmfor better or worseand which, in hindsight, could have scuppered the gradual solemnification of much of Buffy's subtext. Murphy has gone on to achieve an Emmy for the title song ('Youve got a lot to see') to another television series, Family guy
When set against Beck in season 2, alternating episodes in a motley fashion,
Clement and Murray veered closer to the sythesized style set by Murphy, but
by season's end Beck was given finale duties and took the reins fulltime for
the next two seasons, thereby redefining the show's home soundworld. Further
information on Clement's varied career is available at http://composersnet.com/clement/bio.html.
Both composers have since continued their successes scoring mainly for television
and video game genres. A 'Film & TV Music of Shawn
K. Clement' promotional set [reported by Justin Boggan] contains score on
the second disc from Season 2 of Buffy. A pity that clemistry.com
sells a disc reported containing only songs from the show, but the audio clips
section does include tracks from the promotional album (36. Werewolf in the
alley, 37. Angel hates fish, 38. Open door, 39. The chase, 40. Cordelia's
bear, 41. Start the ceremony).
While Buffy the vampire slayer in its fifth and sixth seasons turned its metaphorical head more towards internal and personal troubles, returning to cinematic indulgencies in the run-up to finales, the second and third seasons of Angel retained much of the show's original bloody-minded symphonics; continuity was further enhanced by Kral's heavy involvement in the first season also. With this thought in mind, Kral's continuation of Beck's ambitious mostly-synthetic orchestrations, whilst toning down some of the more soothing femininity of the Buffy personal element has been very appropriate, and is born out of CB's own grittier underscoring for the brooding hero in his first season. More can be read of this composer by following the link to a page at CityOfAngel.com: http://www.cityofangel.com/behindTheScenes/bts/kralLA.html, or reading an interview at the BBC's website: http://www.bbc.co.uk/cult/buffy/angel/interviews/kral/index.shtml.
Update 2004.10 A promotional disc is reported [by Justin Boggan] to exist with selections from Angel (and the short lived series Miracles), including an un-used version of a cue. The Angel tracks are listed as: 6. Massive Assault (3'15), 7. Rebellion (2'59), 9. Forbidden memory / Darla's fire (2'12), 11. Princess Cordellia (1'21), 13. Ultimate Sacrifice (1'30) (Un-used version of Angel sacrificing his life for Darla in "The Trials."). Additionally, the BBC's cult Buffy site has news from Kral himself that Fox has finally agreed tentatively to a commercial album. He is now busy arranging some of his music for album length, with suggestions invited from buffydownunder.com.
Update 2005.01.06 A recent project has been as composer for television series Miracles. A victim of American television's recent sci-fi cancellation spree, there is no shortage of information from fans and the composer himself: there is an interview with him at the Miracles website, and there is a fansite (Rekka's Fire Sanctuary Hall of Miracles, aka MiraclesHQ) dedicated to saving the series, which includes details of a promotional soundtrack.
Update: 2005.02.25 The long-rumoured Angel soundtrack was released earlier this year, at first through iTunes and FOX store only, then as a disc in the UK (2005.02.21), and finally as a CD in America (2005.05.17). It also contains a few relevant songs and even a cue by Chris Beck from the first episode, hence its inclusion in this site's film/tv-ography.
Bluntinstrument has been unable to find a decent information source on this composer, whose work on the 5th and 6th seasons of Buffy has maintained a constant tone beneath the sometimes overly-drawn-out storylines. An impressive opening with Buffy vs. Dracula (5.01) showed reasonable flair with action set-pieces, but these were perhaps not varied enough over the next two years, and the composer's strength has since been shown to be in unassuming mysterious underscorewell-suited to the 6th season. Even before quitting Buffy, he has managed build up credit in television movies in the US and Germany. A promotional disc is rumoured to exist.
Like all the names so far associated with Buffy, DRS's is not truthfully well-known, although a brief glimpse at the imdb.com page shows close work connections with CB both in Buffy and in films such as The Tuxedo and Big Fat Liar. "Quietly" replacing Thomas Wanker with the premiere to Buffy season 7, DRS's style showed a return to form for the show in terms of action/horror music, matching the styles of both Beck and Angel's Robert Kral without danger of plagiarism. Unfortunately, despite an 18 month association with Beck (in Once more with feeling (6.07) he is credited as Douglas Stevens), whom he credits as of great value in aiding his composing apprenticeship and entry into Buffy scoring, and despite planning themes for the whole season and even bringing back Chris Bleth to play woodwinds, his involvement was limited to 'Lessons' (7.01), 'Same time, same place' (7.03) and arranging Joss Whedon's "Mrs." song for Anya in 7.05. Luckily his involvement in the genre continued, providing music from 2002.09 for Angel 4.08-4.21 and 5.01-5.04, 5.06-5.11, 5.13-5.21. Ironically, his services to Angel included an opportunity to score Spike's firey return from his Hellmouth end during Buffy 7, and for this he used the theme he originally planned for the characterit has been added as a soundclip to his official website. Here is what DRS had to say for his experience:
2005.05.01 update: "I have to agree with you on wishing I could have scored the whole season of Buffy. The Hellmouth cue from Angel was a strange opportunity but I'm glad it came along. The Angel producers said they definitely didn't want to use the score from the Buffy episode for the scene so Rob thought I might like to take a crack at it. [snip] I had created a Spike theme for Buffy season 7 after talks with the producers about upcoming stories (back in August 2002). It seemed that Spike was going to be taking on a new, significant role in saving the world in season 7 and could certainly support a theme. I gave a hint of it in "Lessons" when Buffy finds him in the school basement. I was then planning to present it more fully in the next episode when Spike falls on the alter in the church. It was a powerful scene and I envisioned presenting the theme as a "Kyrie" of sorts with boy soprano. However, I was informed that I would not be scoring the second episode before I ever got that far. "Same Time, Same Place" didn't really provide an opportunity to deal with Spike per sayhis scenes were more about Willow. So when the Angel episode with the Buffy finale scene came up I decided to do what I think I would have done had Buffy continued to be mine to score. I was told in our Buffy pre-season talks that Spike and Buffy would have a connection in season 7 (beyond rape) so I had tailored Spike's theme with an eye toward it being played as a love theme eventually. On Angel I finally had my chance."
Naturally all this ended with the cancellation of Angel, but did at least allow the composer the chance to trumpet his involvement in both series, and he has added uncredited work to the show Miracles (1.02-1.13, dating from 2003.01). Doug composed uncredited 'additional music' for season one of Duck Dodgers, episodes 1.02-1.06, 1.09-1.13, then worked (with credit) on additional music for season two and three, with Rob Kral credited as principal scorer.
Doug has had five short films on release to film festivals, including Sunday Paper, Antebody, The Jackalope, Patching Cabbage and Paper Cut, and one feature documentary named H.H.Holmes: America's First Serial Killer (released by Facets MultiMedia, Inc. 2004.10.26) which garnered 'Best Documentary' at Screamfest LA, and has now been released on DVD (region 1 so far). Patching Cabbage was directed by Peter "Pre" Rhoads, an apprentice under Shawn Levy on Big Fat Liar and Just Married. Doug also scored The Skulls 3 (video/DVD movie) with Beck and others, and music from this film and details of his work are available from his regularly updated official site at http://www.bleujean.com/drs.html.
2005.03.13 update. Bleujean have added new photos to their site, plus inform of two new films released at festivals (Shelter is viewable via the internet/MediaPlayer, after signing up free at Cinequest). For those more interested in the website's music bounty, Bleujean have added new clips from Duck Dodgers, Miracles and the fifth season of Angel. Here is what they say on the latter: "Puppet Fight" from the season 5 episode in which Angel becomes a puppet, and "Hellmouth" from a season 5 episode in which Spike mystically appears in Angel's office straight from the final Buffy episodethe show's creators wanted the cue re-written, so Kral asked DRS to score the cue using the Spike theme he originally wrote for Buffy as it's composer.
2006.01.29 update. Bleujean (http://www.bleujean.com/drsmusic.html) have added a new collection of promotional cues to their site, many of which are truly impressive in their scope and melody. Although posted as "ScienceFiction/Thriller", they are in fact gleaned from his recent project Entity Nine, which, despite a budget dictating the usual reliance on samples and synths, has managed to squeeze in live performances from Chris Bleth (a Buffy regular who has been engaged by DRS in the past, here playing flute and clarinet), John Wittenberg, Kirstin Fife, Vladimir Polimatidi and Philip Vaiman (violins), Stefanie Fife (cello), Doyal Livingston (vocals), and Stevens himself on the piano. The result simply reminds us how much a little live playing can add to the scope of a synth score - the cues are full of vitality and well worth the download. If Entity Nine were playing in the UK I couldn't think of a better stimulous to watching it.
2006.04 update: score reviews. The kindly people of Bleujean sent copies
of both film and soundtrack for Entity
Nine and Shelter, both short films, slick in their own genres,
one a sci-fi modelled on The Sixth Day and the other a Magnoliaesque
interlinking of storylines between desperate or sad people. Doug's scoring
for both was not only apposite but, in my opinion, probably of better value
than either film would normally have expected. Entity Nine in particular
pulls out the stops to deliver excitement in the quasi-orchestral fashion
DRS exhibited so well in the Buffyverse. He brings in Buffy regular and all-round
woodwind whizkid Chris Bleth (on flute and clarinet) and supplements with
four violinists and a cello. The result is economical but thrilling (think
A.I. in places?), and there are sci-fi/action feature scores that do
a lot less. Shelter, then, is a complete contrast, reducing the scoring
down to little more than string synths, atmospherics (rain fx, synth-sound,
some very soft marimba percussion?) and delicate piano. In its own way this
is the more effective score because it lets the drama play out with the barest
2007.04 update: name change. After some years credited as Douglas Romayne Stevens, the composer, under professional advice has shortened his credited name to Douglas Romayne. He has a new myspace area at http://www.myspace.com/douglasromayne, and soon a new web address, http://www.douglasromayne.com (temporarily forwarding to http://www.douglasromaynestevens.com). And what of the music? Head over to http://cdbaby.com/cd/drstevens which is the source of his new album of music, titled 'Expressing the Inexpressible', which features music from a number of recent projects including Entity Nine, Freedomland and Rocketboy.
2007.10 update: Rocketboy (whose score was featured in 'Expressing the Inexpressible') has been nominated for best score for a student film by the Film and TV Music Awards (voting now closed). The Film & TV Music Academy is a peer-based organization designed to recognize those working in the music fieldscomposers, performers, music editors, mixers, etc. The film's trailer is streamed from the composer's website and shows off the score too.
Sadly Bluntinstrument has no details concerning the style or technique this composer has adopted for the show, but fortunately he has an informative website at http://www.duncanmusic.com which includes a biography, list of credits, contact details and a collection of downloadable mp3 files. (Many thanks to Vanessa Knights for the link; Bluntinstrument has e-mailed the webmaster for permission and waits for confirmation)
Dennis's involvement (BMI lists Charles David Dennis, Parry P Gripp and Stephen L Sherlock) with Buffy is limited to the cast and crew's warming to an already-composed tune above the attempts of a specially-hired composer's efforts (Justin suggests Walter Murphy). Whedon's decision to use the band (according to his DVD commentary for "Welcome to the Hellmouth" (1.01)) appears based on being force-fed it debut album by Alison Hannigan (actress playing Willow) during filming. Nerf Herder.net FAQs claims that their cheapness was also a contributing factor. An interview concerning this has been posted by Five Arabs. Nerf Herder's performance was cleaned somewhat for the opening titles of season 3 and beyond.
Cami Elen, Jymm Thomas and Holly Knight wrote and performed the title piece for Buffy's spin-off gamble, and opted for a more melancoly approach as opposed to the unforgiving gothic rock of Nerf Herder. The band's involvement had been noted during season 3 of Buffy, and among the demos submitted, theirs was judged closest to what Whedon and Greenwalt required. The Slayage online journal contains an article in issue 4 by Dr Halfyard arguing for gender issue and indeed gender subversion in the stylistic choices behind the two shows' themes. Cami Elen's interview with the Watcher's Web may be found at http://websites.cable.ntl.com/~fraxis/the_ww/old/features/elen.html, and Jymm Thomas's at http://websites.cable.ntl.com/~fraxis/the_ww/old/features/thomas.html. Darling Violetta as a group discuss similar aspects at http://www.the11thhour.com/archives/111999/features/darlingvioletta1.html. Incidentally, an extended vocal version of the theme has been noted at sites such as CityofAngel.com, at http://www.cityofangel.com/behindTheScenes/bts/pbp2001.html
Best known now as a composer for computer games (including, oddly enough, Vampire The Masquerade), Manthei's previous credits (almost non-credits) have been mostly for providing additional music for productions in film and television. These appear to include a number of scores by composers Marco Beltrami (Scream, The Faculty and others) and by Chris Beck (Buffy, Crossworlds). Fortunately his name has a presence on the web. The Kevin Manthei Productions website has a credits list as well as other details about the composer; there is an interview with him at Music4Games (which is informative about his scoring methods in general); and another at Strategy Planet which includes a picture. Update 2008.5: Justin confirms his Buffy work was for Beck, and that he also ghosted music for FX: The Series.
His 'Film & TV Music' disc contains two cues from his additional, uncredited, work on season 6. 'Willow kills Warren' and 'Buffy confronts demon' (unclear which particular confrontation this refers to). Credited by BMI as having worked with Thomas Wanker. Update 2008.5: Morales has a website at http://www.tonymoralesmusic.com. Although I can see no downloads of music, he credits hiumself with "additional music" for 2001-2002, which should tally with the promo disc.
A TV and Film Music promotional disc includes some additional uncredited music from Buffy and Angel, in the form of 'instrumental songs'.
Robert Kral, busy with new TV show Miracles, brought Ralston in to help him out with the first few episodes of Angel's fourth season. Kral was still key composer even here, though, and was later able to continue with his established help. Scenes included Angel's visit to Dinza's lair in "Ground State". Ralston was given a free reign but keeps close to the style Kral had established for the show. Ralston has a website at brianralston.com
A now-defunct official website for Alex Kharlamov and Marina Kotsios (http://www.kharlamov.com/MagicalScores/) confirmed that both composers composed music for Angel, and that Kharlamov appeared to have scored for Buffy and The Practice, all as 'additional' music. The website contained an introduction to the composing team and music clips from the shows (Angel 1999, Angel/Buffy/The Practice 2001). More recently Kharlamov gained himself a new website at http://www.kharlamov.com/ but this omits clips of additional music, despite the site referring to work with Chris Beck on music for Buffy/Angel (and ASCAP confirming his involvement). It is sad that these clips are lost, and the information pool reduced.
The drawback of kharlamov.com is its dry professionalism, which makes Garageband's site all the more valuable. At http://www.garageband.com/user/kharlamov a biography includes the following rather illuminating text:
In 1999, AK worked for a top Hollywood TV and film composer Christophe Beck as a full-time music assistant, working for some months without hardly any time off; trying to keep up with performing musical, administrative, engineering, booking, musical/composing, software-testing and organizational studio tasks all at the same time. This work has let Alex to learn about many degrees of fast-paced Hollywood music business and production discipline - an indispensable type of knowledge, which he could not have acquired otherwise. After being fired for the lack of his office organizational skills, he started to put together his own recording setup - several years after he sold his previous one (in 1997), when he moved to Los Angeles.
October update: good news via Justin Boggan. Here it is in Alex Kharlamov's words:
I have just re-designed my website, and it now contains downloadable mp3's of some of my Buffy and Angel cues (under Music/Electronic-Orchestral...). If you do update that page with newly-found info, then could you please include this info on the website? Thank you in any case :) www.kharlamov.com
A future update will incorporate this information to correct that above, once I have checked out the site again.
A review of the only known Buffy episode to include his music is on this site, and a picture and Dawson's Creek blurb on him are at http://www.dawsonscreekmusic.com/score/adamfields.htm
So far the only details available are on his agent's (The Gorfaine/Schwartz Agency, Inc.) site, in a .pdf file: http://gsamusic.com/Composers/Wolovitch_Al.pdf. To cut a short story even shorter, his credit for 'Additional music' to Buffy the vampire slayer is not credited to any specific season.
2006.01.29 update. Justin been informed by AW himself that he made no input to Buffy, but rather existing work of his was acquired for inclusion. No further detail could be remembered.
Reputed to be a contributor of music to Buffy, Niu is currently a regular orchestrator for Brian Tyler. In response to my questioning, Mr Tyler e-mailed back promptly informing me: "Yes Dana Niu was an excellent composer for Buffy the Vampire Slayer. I believe it was the 2000." Investigation left at this point since Ms Niu is no doubt busy on current projects.
A 2-disc promotional set titled 'Up & Down: Richard Band' includes music totalling ca.5'30" used for advertising Buffy the Vampire Slayer.
After much arm-twisting, Justin won Burwell a mention in the hall of fame for having written the music not for the television series but for the 1992 film it grew out of. Whedon's experience with this picture was not a happy one (in fact his script was "lightened", and the 1997 television series is widely regarded as having grown out of his original screenplay rather than the Luke Perry romantic comedy vehicle it became), but Burwell shouldn't be blamed, and his track record for previous films (Psycho III, Blood Simple perhaps) may have made him a decent choice. Born in 1955, his film career started in the mid-1980s, hitching a ride to respectability along with the Coen Brothers, whose preferred composer he remains. He has a homepage at http://www.carterburwell.com. Boggan cites a 4 disc CD set titled 'Fox Music Publishing Sampler' as including an unsoecified amount of music from the Buffy score.
The BMI database groups Josh Kramon (as he is referred to elsewhere) with Chris Beck for Buffy scoring, although no other source supports this. It is notable that his connection with Beck is confirmed by his involvement as guitar player for the film Coming Soon. Kramon has since made a name for himself both as film composer (e.g. for gore fest Cabin Fever) and songwriter (http://www.cdbaby.com/cd/kramon). He is represented by Ingenuity Entertainment (noted 2003).
According to the BMI database, Thomas Wanker's co-workers in film projects (Kloser was his co-composer on The Thirteenth Floor, and more recently on The Day After Tomorrow; and Schobel has since been linked with Wanker on film projects such as Alien Vs. Predator) were also involved in his stint scoring Buffy's fifth and sixth seasons after the departure of Chris Beck. Their close working relationship is apparent, but the extent of their work on Buffy has yet to be measured. Update, 2006.12: Justin found Schobel, who claims to have written only one cue for Buffy (during Wanker's tenure).
Confirmed as a contributor at BMI, Klotz's main claim to fame on the web is as a member of a band called Fonda. Shmat.com has a quotation from him as "Dave", claiming to be "making a living by music editing for TV shows like Buffy The Vampire Slayer and Tru Calling". Perhaps his involvement was only as editor, or perhaps some of his role was expanded when work pressure for the series overtook the composer. His IMDb.com credit in this role is for the final season only. SplendidZone.com has an interview with Fonda members, and mentions their (sic.!) music being included in Buffy (at least before the middle of season 5). Fonda's song "The Sun Keeps Shining on Me" certainly appears on the UK version of "Buffy The Vampire Slayer: Radio Sunnydale". Update, 2006.12: Justin has a reply from the man himself: "Occasionally, I would contribute an original piece of music or musical element usually to help fix a transition to or from a source cue." However, he also mentioned season 7, so the duration of his tenure (and under which composer(s)) is still unconfirmed.
Confirmed by BMI listings, it must be hastily added that this cannot be the same composer as that honoured at johnkingmusic.com (who is a classical composer and guitarist, and appears at home with anything from experimental electronics to opera.. but not cult television scoring). The correct John King was the Music Supervisor for both Buffy (from part way through) and Angel (i.e. he made decisions over what songs to use and how they should fit with the score), and producer of the UK version of Radio Sunnydale (he also contributed to the booklet notes). An interview with him is available at TVtome. He even got to gether with Script Coordinator Tamara Becher to form a band called "Yank". In Buffy he recorded the guitar part for Anthony Head's cover of The Who's "Behind Blue Eyes" in the episode "Where Wild Things Are" (4.18) (thanks to buffyworld.com for the information). Whether or not he actually composed the guitar accompaniment or indeed any other music for the shows is unclear, though, beyond the hazy BMI mention.
This composer's site at http://darrenwilsey.com/ includes an unspecified credit for Angel.
Not a composer for the television series but for the video game (for the main game stations but not PC) "Buffy the Vampire Slayer: Chaos Bleeds". Buffy fan Robert Markham suggests that the game also includes music (described, tantilisingly as "chilling") from season 4 Beck scored episode "This Year's Girl" but so far there is no confirmation officially or from other contributors. Gamers are welcome to comment!
Livingstone has a website at www.ianlivingstone.net
Borisavljevic is credited for unverified episodes/cues of Angel in the IMDb. This is supported by a link to Beck through writing 'commercial music' used on The Alarmist (1997/8).
Listed at BMI. Justin followed this up and has found that they contributed one cue from Beck's tenure on the episode "Amends" [3.10] -- which at the time was being titled "Deck the Halls".
Joss Whedon for various isolated (and unverified) involvements, and
as songwriter for "Once more, with feeling" and the song "Mrs",
used in episode 7.05. ASCAP
lists him with Angela Ruth Hart (of the band Splendid)
for the song "Blue", which topped and tailed the creepy episode
7.07 "Conversations with dead people". [Thanks to John Pavlich for
Ib Glindemann (Justin has found him mentioned at ASCAP or BMI), whose Danish website at http://www.glindemann.dk places him as a conductor of swing music in festivals etc. Whether this is the same man and how he got to be involvemed with a Hollywood television production is unclear.
Alan (Paul) Ett and Scott Gimore Liggett This duo was credited by BMI. Born in 1952, according to IMDb.com, Ett was certainly very active in television scoring during the late 1990s. www.aemg.com lists Alan Ett as one of the composers in the Alan Ett Music Group, which has produced work for a variety of television series, games, adverts, promos and even logos, but no mention of Buffy appears. The closest (but tenuous) link is that one of its promos listed is for Warner Bros., which could link to the WB channel which hosted Buffy and Angel in their early years.
Michael (W.) Jones: Co-credited at BMI with Johann Pachelbel, baroque composer famous for a canon for strings. Sure enough, there is a CD by "David Lanz/Michael Jones" called "Winter Solstice" and including a track titled "Improvisation On A Theme (From Pachelbel's Canon In D Major) - David Lanz" - strangely enough, yes, it is crediting the other composer. Perhaps it was used for some kind of classy or grand event in the series, such as in Graduation. Eagle-eared listeners might be able to confirm.
Neil (Richard) Claxton and Christopher (Paul) Baker Listed at BMI. Claxton has a website at http://www.mint-royal.com. Investigation continues.
Fernand G Bos Listed at ASCAP for cues, but unverified.
Thomas Morgan Edwards II Listed at ASCAP for "cues" but a note is "Harmonica player" is also included, though no performer listed, so presumably not pop? This is a tricky one.
Kevin Michael Manthei Listed at BMI.
Wataru Hokoyama www.wataruhokoyama.com gave this composer credit for orchestrations for Buffy in 2002. It has been confirmed from another source that Hokoyama's only contribution was orchestrations for the song "Mrs" which was used in 7.05. Engaged for this as a trial for future involvement, this became irrelevant when Douglas Romayne Stevens' services were no longer required as composer.
Dannen Wilsey Angel is among his credits on www.darrenwilsey.com, although further details are not given.
Original scoring work for Buffy and Angel listed at ASCAP
lists its publisher/administrator as
TCF Music Publishing Inc.
C/O Twentieth Century Fox Film Corp.
ATTN: Ted Spellman
P O Box 900
Music Dept. - Bldg #18
Beverly Hills, CA, 90213
Tel. (310) 369-2541
The pilot show apparently had no score, but songs used were:
Bob Mould - See a Little Light
Bush Babees - pon de attack
Rancid - Salvation
STP - Lady Picture Show
Information from http://www.jengod.com/buffy/pilot.html